Thus, a natural question is whether endocrine-immune crosstalk contributes to sexual differentiation of the brain. Males are much more likely to have disorders that emerge early in life, whereas females are more likely to develop disorders that arise around the onset of puberty or later.
Critical periods are characterized by rapid growth and, as a result, are susceptible to disruption by intrinsic and extrinsic factors; even minor deviations from the typical developmental trajectory can have long-lasting or permanent consequences.
Male levels of testosterone directly induce the growth of the genitalsand indirectly via dihydrotestosterone DHT the prostate.
Exp Neurol. Production of interleukin by mouse glial cells in culture. Retrieved 14 August Neuroendocrine and Immune System Communication One of the first studies suggesting neuroendocrine-immune crosstalk dates to the s, when Hans Selye observed adrenal hypertrophy and thymus involution in stressed animals 83an effect later attributed to the immunosuppressive actions of adrenal glucocorticoids Support Center Support Center.
As adolescents continue to mature they become better able to move their bodies with greater skill and precision. Organizing action of prenatally administered testosterone propionate on the tissues mediating mating behavior in the female guinea pig. Watson L. Microglia-derived proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1beta induce Purkinje neuronal apoptosis via their receptors in hypoxic neonatal rat brain.
Sex differences are apparent in the hippocampus as a consequence of prenatal LPS exposure. Adult males have significantly more vasopressin neurons within the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and the medial amygdala, and a higher density of vasopressin innervation projecting from these regions to the forebrain than females
Both primary and secondary lymphoid organs of the immune system, such as the bone marrow, thymus, lymph nodes, and spleen, are innervated by noradrenergic and peptidergic nerve fibers The increased secretion of testosterone from the testes during puberty causes the male secondary sexual characteristics to be manifested.
Sex differences in pediatric traumatic brain injury. Fundamentals of Anatomy and Physiology. Microglial dopamine receptor elimination defines sex-specific nucleus accumbens development and social behavior in adolescent rats.
Identification of prostaglandin E2 receptors mediating perinatal masculinization of adult sex behavior and neuroanatomical correlates.