Thus, one could envision wind-up as a gateway to central sensitization, a potential factor in several chronic pain conditions [ ]. J Neurophysiol. Clearly, additional studies are needed to further characterize differences in pain-related brain activity between males and females.
Sex differences in the prevalence of widespread musculoskeletal pain have also been documented. Thus, the early to mids was a period of increased scholarly activity regarding sex differences in pain. Other studies of clinical pain have reported no sex differences in morphine analgesia for cancer pain, acute pain in the emergency department, 38or pain after oral surgery.
Inclusion of non-cycling subjects may be of interest at specific life stages pre-puberty, pregnancy, menopause. However, the real test of the hypothesis that pain sensitivity itself is higher in women requires controlled laboratory experimentation.
Does experimental pain resopnse vary across the menstrual cycle? Estrogen modulation of G-protein-coupled receptor activation of potassium channels in the central nervous system. Role of steroids in sex differences in morphine-induced analgesia: activational and organizational effects.
Long-term ovariectomy and hormone-induced sexual behavior, progestin receptors, and hypothalamic morphology in female rats. Masui58 101 Jan Epidemiologic perspectives on sex differences in pain. In contrast, psychosocial research specifically examines these individual differences for their influence on pain.
Women experience more pain and require more morphine than men to achieve a similar degree of analgesia. Testing across the menstrual cycle and reproductive stages: human studies In humans, while it may not always be important to test at different stages of the menstrual cycle, it is always important to consider whether such testing studying sex and gender differences in pain and analgesia in Henderson appropriate.
Explanations rooted explicitly in pain biology, either at the systems levelor neurochemical level, purport that aspects of neural processing of pain feature either quantitative or qualitative sex differences. Many jurisdictions now insist that clinical studies are performed on both sexes, but no such mandate exists for preclinical research.
Epidemiologic studies of pain typically report point prevalence currently in pain , period prevalence ie, experiencing pain during the past month or year , or lifetime prevalence. Tokai J Exp Clin Med. Horm Behav.